Centrally Sponsored Scheme
1. National Watershed development programme in Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)
2. River Valley Project (RVP)
National Watershed development programme in Rainfed Areas (N.W.D.P.R.A.)
National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas is in operation since 1991-92. So far, 9,09,996 Ha. have been treated at an expenditure of Rs. 198.899 Crores. During 2001-2002 it is programmed to develop an area of 45280 Ha. in 141 taluks/watersheds in 26 districts with an outlay of Rupees 2100 lakhs.
The broad objectives of the Watershed Programmes are:
Criteria for Selection of Watershed
State level Watershed Development Implementation Committe
Headed by Additional Chief Secretary and Development Commisisoner. Members are Principal Secretary, Agriculture & Horticulture, Secretary (Horticulture), Director, Watershed Development Department, Commissioner for Agriculture, Chief Conservator of Forests (Social Forestry), Director, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Director, Horticulture Deartment, Chief Scientist, Dry Land Development, UAS, GKVK and Directors of Extension, UAS, Bangalore and Dharwad.
District level Co-ordination Committee
Headed by Chief Executive Officer of respective Zilla Panchayat. Members are District Watershed Development Officer, Horticulture Officer, Forest Officer, Deputy Director of Animal Husbandry, Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Society and District Joint Director of Agriculture.
Taluka Level Co-ordination Committee - Headed by Chairman of the Taluka Panchayat. Members are Z.P. Member of Watershed area, Chairman of the Grama Panchayat of the Watershed area, Executive Officer of the Taluka Panchayat and taluka level Officers of various concerned Departments.
Watershed level - Watershed Committee (Mitra Krishika Mandal/ Watersheds Sanghas, Watershed Societies) - Headed by a President, selected by the local people from among themselves. Members are local NGOs, voluntary agencies, local officers of the development department, group of local people and members of self-help groups / user groups.E.
Treatment Approach- Landless, Marginal and Small Farmers Provision has been made to support the above category population living in the watershed area by providing them with incentives under household production activities or loan from the revolving fund.
Livestock Management - Provision has been made for reducing the scrub bull population, upgrading the livestock with improve breeds, and development of pasture. Activities like animal health care are also included.
Production Activities - Provision of crop demonstration in arable land, agro-forestry and horticulture development in arable as well as non arable land has been made. Other activities like kitchen / homestead gardening are also supported.
Soil & Water Conservation activities - Treatment of watersheds is done on a ridge to valley approach. Different soil and water conservation measures integrated with afforestation and horticulture are proposed based on the land capability, slope etc. Vegetative measures of conservation have been given due importance while treating the land.The normal pattern of watershed treatment is as follows -
Arable land - measures like contour vegetative hedges / contour bunding / gully control measures / land smoothening and other inter bund management and contour cultivation / cultivation across the slope.
Non-arable land - measures like contour trenches / diversion drains / gully control measures supported by vegetative measures.
Upper Reaches - treatment like live checks, brushwood checks, loose boulder checks and small dugout ponds are taken up supported by afforestation.
Middle Reaches - earthen structures with vegetative support, loose boulder structures with vegetative support and run-off management dugout ponds are proposed. Further, agri-horticulture systems are advocated.
Lower Reaches - dugout sunken ponds, nal bunds, check dams for run-off management are proposed. Using the stored water, horticulture, afforestation and fodder development activities are taken up.
River Valley Project (RVP) Introduction
IntroductionDevelopment and Conservation of Land Resources are very vital for Agricultural Economy. The surface of the earth is being eroded continuously by mankind by one way or the other resulting in ecological imbalance on one hand and Natural calamities such as flood and fury of rivers wash away the wealth of surface soil on the other hand. The result of these devastation’s in the catchment area cause degradation of lands and premature siltation of reservoirs. In order to preserve the wealth of surface land, natural resources like soil and water the River Valley Project Scheme was initiated in Karnataka during the IIIrd five year plan in the catchments of Tungabhadra, Nijamsagar and Nagarjunasagar.This scheme is in operation in Tunghabhadra, Nizamsagar and Nagarjunasagar Catchments. The scheme was started during 1963-64 with the main objective of preventing and checking premature siltation of reservoirs and to increase production and productivity of the catchment area. Since inception of the project an area of 5.85 lakh Ha. has been developed with an expenditure of 102.269 Crores. During 2001-2002 it is programmed to develop an area of 37856 Ha. with a total outlay of Rs. 1500.00 lakhs. At present Centrally Sponsored Scheme is implemented as State Sector Scheme in the state under Macro Management mode. Earlier sharing pattern was 50:50 i.e. Govt.of India grant and long term loan to the state respectively.
In Tungabhadra Catchment 3.232 lakh ha. of priority area has been treated since inception of the RVP Scheme which accounts for 64.38 % of the total priority area of 5.02 lakh ha. Identified as high and very high priority as on 31.3.2001, further 138 watersheds have been saturated out of 154 watersheds. The details are in Annexure-1.The districts of Bellary,Haveri,Chitradurga, Koppal and Davanagere are included in Thungabhadra Catchment of River Valley Project. In view of saturating the catchment area, the remaining 16 watersheds will be taken up during the current year (2001-2002) to treat an area of 25467 Ha. and to construct 3736 structures at an outlay of Rs.844.86 lakhs. The total project cost including establishment training, corpusfund , Hydrological sediment monitoring contingency etc., works out Rs. 1100 lakhs..